Cellular adaptations


Hyperplasia (increased cell number)

Hypertrophy (increased cell mass)

Atrophy (decreased cell mass)

Metaplasia (replacement of one differentiated cell type with another)


Tissue damage and cell death


Apoptosis (programmed cell death) - microscopy and an animation of apoptotic pathways


Thromboembolic disease


Thrombosis (inappropriate activation of blood clotting in uninjured vasculature, or after minor injury)

Thromboembolus (passage of a thrombus through the vasculature from its place of formation to a distant site)

Bone marrow embolus (passing into the pulmonary circulation from a fractured bone) (digital slide)

For more on non-thrombotic pulmonary emboli, read here.




Ischaemic necrosis of tissue caused by occlusion of the arterial blood supply, or obstruction of the venous drainage.


Ischaemia (restriction of the blood supply to an organ or tissue, compromising cellular function).



Acute and sub-acute


Granulomatous inflammation

Mixed acute and chronic inflammation


inflammation and the lungs - asthma


An interesting article on the pathogenesis of asthma can be found here (Olin JT, Wechsler ME. Asthma: pathogenesis and novel drugs for treatment. BMJ 2014; Nov 24; 349:g5517 doi: 10.1136/bmj.g5517. REVIEW)



inflammation and the lungs - tuberculosis


An interesting article on tuberculosis can be found here (Knechel NA. Tuberculosis: pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. Critical Care Nurse 2009; 29:34-43).





inflammation and the brain - meningitis


Interesting articles on meningitis can be found here (Koedel U, Scheld WM, Pfister H-W. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2002; 2:721-736) and here (Scheld WM, Koedel U, Nathan B, Pfister H-W. Pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis: mechanism(s) of neuronal injury. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002; 186 (Suppl 2):S225-S233)





Abnormal cellular infiltrations




Harmful agents in the environment



Coal dust



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