The 'big picture'

Inflammation and the host reposnse to injury - a summary presentation, and a more in-depth overview on Prezi.com.

Interesting articles:

pathophysiology of inflammation videos

animations of the inflammatory response

acute inflammation


The cardinal signs of acute inflammation are depicted in this cartoon. They are redness (rubor), warmth (calor), swelling (tumour), and pain (dolor). Loss of function (functio laesa) is also often included in this list of signs.

The pathophysiological basis and consequences of fever is described in this article.

This image of cellulitis clearly shows the clinical signs of redness and swelling of the left leg compared with the right. If you could examine this leg you would be able to feel that it was warm to the touch, and the patient would be able to tell you that it was painful to touch, and walk.

Other images of acutely inflamed tissues/ structures can be found here:

cells involved in inflammation


The principal cell involved in the acute inflammatory process is the  neutrophil , a type of white blood cell.

Interesting articles describing the functions of neutrophils include:


Collections of living and dead neutrophils, dead tissue debris (with or without microorganisms) is called an abscess.


The principal cell involved in the chronic inflammation process is the macrophage (another type of white blood cell).

Interesting articles about the functions of the macrophage include:

Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes - they can ingest microbes by an active process called phagocytosis (as depicted in the 'Epic Bob' video).


Myeloid cells - including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages - can also participate in the inflammatory process by activation of so-called inflammasomes. Interesting articles about inflammasomes include:


Innate lymphoid cells and Natural killer cells are also important cellular constituents of the inflammatory process and interesting articles about these cells include:

inflammation and the cardiovascular system


Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process. Interesting articles on atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, and the complications of this disease process include:




Other inflammatory conditions affecting the cardiovascular system include:







An interesting article on the possible link between inflammation and venous thrombosis can be found here (Piazza G, Ridker PM. Is venous thromboembolism a chronic inflammatory disease? Clinical Chemistry DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2014.234088)

inflammation and the lungs


Pneumonia (van der Poll T, Opal SM. Pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia. The Lancet 2009; 374:1543-1556)



Inflammation in the lungs causing acute pneumonitis, and pneumonia, can follow breathing-in oral, or gastric content (and is called aspiration pneumonitis/ pneumonia).

Microscopic images of aspiration pneumonia can be found here and here. An interesting article on this topic can be found here (DiBardino DM, Wunderink RG. Aspiration pneumonia: a review of modern trends. Journal of Critical Care 2015; 30:40-48).

Viral pneumonia is discussed here (Yoo J-K, Kim TS, Hufford MM. Viral infection of the lung: host response and sequelae. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2013; 132:1263-1276) and here (van der Sluijs KF, van der Poll T, Lutter R, Juffermans NP, Schultz MJ. Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial pneumonia with influenza - pathogenesis and clinical implications. Critical Care 2010; 14:219).


inflammation, metabolic disorders and cancer


An interesting article on the possible links between inflammation and metabolic disroders can be found here (Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature 2006; 444:860-867).



Associations between inflammation and cancer are discussed in an article which can be found here (Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A, Balkwill F. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature 2008; 454:436-444).


sepsis - clinical definitions


Articles discussing new clinical definitions of sepsis include:

You might also find the following article interesting: Alverdy J, Krezalek MA. Collapse of the microbiome, emergence of the pathobiome, and the immunopathology of sepsis. Critical Care Medicine 2017; 45:337-347. The authors are critical of the term 'sepsis' (and advocate a new term, nonresolving organ dysfunction syndrome - nRODs) as well as emphasise emerging research findings relating to the role of the microbiome (and pathobiome) in critical illness.


Sepsis awareness videos and NHS National Early Warning Score





 sepsis pathophysiology 


Intersting articles:

autopsy pathology and sepsis


For an overview of the topic read Lucas S. The autopsy pathology of sepsis-related death (Current Diagnostic Pathology 2007; 13:375-388).

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)


Articles to read:


the role of the gut in driving critical illness/ organ failure?


Articles to read:

the community of self, iatrogenesis, and new ways of looking at sepsis


Articles to read:

inflammation and trauma



Articles to read (pathophysiology of trauma):





Brain injury and inflammation:


Thermal injury (burns) and inflammation:



oral health and systemic inflammation


Articles to read:



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